Skilled readers (and effective spellers) use orthographic mapping skills, to map the speech sounds to speech sound pictures (phonemes to graphemes) however many struggle to master 'orthographic learning' because of the systematic phonics
instruction - and even more so when there isn't an explicitly taught phase within which to develop a 'foundation of phonic knowledge'.
Within the I Can Read Without You (ICRWY) Project we use Code Mapped texts
and tools with Spelling Clouds to help speed up the rate at which neurotypical and neurodivergent students (of any age) achieve
mastery of orthographic learning through Code Mapping®.
Orthographic Mapping and 'Irregular Words' (often referred to as sight words'. Full lecture
According to David Kilpatrick (2021), good readers can access around 50,000 words on sight without any conscious effort.
• No one consciously memorizes that many “sight” words, so cognitive processes must be occurring “behind the scenes” making it possible to instantly access that many words.
• Orthographic mapping describes the “behind the scenes” processes of mapping sounds to letters resulting in automatic retrieval.
• Orthographic mapping is enabled by phonemic awareness and grapheme-phoneme (letter-sound) knowledge. (Ehri, 2014)
• Orthographic mapping is the process by which we store written words in our long-term memory, for quick retrieval later.
How Do We Learn New Words?
- The Mississippi Department of Education
“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”
(International Dyslexia Association-IDA).